term.subject="administration"

Præciser din søgning:

Emne
Forfatter
Materialetype
Sprog
Årstal
Kilde
Set sort order for search result
HjemmeHjemme
UdlåntUdlånt
Kan ikke reserveresKan ikke reserveres
Læs på biblioteketLæs på biblioteket
Vis antal:102550
  1. Socialret : principper, rettigheder, værdier

    • Bog
    38.42 KET

    Socialret : principper, rettigheder, værdier

    2014
    4. udgave, 2. oplag (2020)
    Find den her
    Detaljer
    Haves: 
    870970-basis:51452445|980|.
    Note: 
    Indhold: Socialretten i sin egen ret ; Velfærdsstatens retlige formater ; Almindelige socialretlige principper og strukturer ; Om forsørgelsesretlige sammenhænge ; Grundværdier, grundrettigheder, forbud mod forskelsbehandling ; Handicapretlige grundprincipper ; Retskilder og fortolkning ; Selvforsørgelsespligten, retten til grundlæggende forsørgelse og fattigdom ; Sociale ydelsers beskyttelse som ejendomsrettigheder ; Dansk socialret og den fri bevægelighed i Unionen ; Den sociale organisations- og opgavestruktur ; Det sociale klagesystem ; Oversigt over sociale rettigheder ; Sociallovgivningens udvikling i hovedtræk
    ISBN nr.: 
    9788761935786
    Omfang: 
    523 sider
    Udgiver: 
    Karnov Group
    Målgruppe: 
    fagligt niveau, voksenmaterialer
    By: 
    870970-basis:51452445|260|a
    Available: 
    870970-basis:51452445|980|a
  2. In peace prepared : innovation and adaptation in Canada's Cold War army

    • Ebog

    In peace prepared : innovation and adaptation in Canada's Cold War army

    2014
    Summary: Although the Allies claimed victory at the end of the Second World War, the United States' invention of the atomic bomb and its replication by the Soviet Union posed new dangers for all nations. This book examines what Canada's Cold War Army did to prepare for war against the Warsaw Pact armies -- and why and how it did it.--Publisher's description
    Find den her
    Detaljer
    Haves: 
    150057-ebscobog:on1244844051|980|.
    Note: 
    Available in another form: Godefroy, Andrew B., 1972- ; In peace prepared, Introduction -- 1 Soldiers as Innovators: The Evolution of Army Combat Development -- 2 Shadow over Victory: From Occupation to Cold War Army, 1945-50 -- 3 Going East and West: Combat Development in the Hot and Cold Wars, 1950-54 -- 4 Ensuring Destruction: Designing the Tactical Nuclear Army, 1954-58 -- 5 Atomic War Games: Combat Development through Simulation, 1958-64 -- 6 Towards a Flexible Response: Creating a Post-Atomic Mobile Command, 1963-68 -- Conclusion
    ISBN nr.: 
    9780774827027, 0774827025
    Omfang: 
    1 online resource (xiii, 275 s.
    Udgiver: 
    UBC Press
    Målgruppe: 
    voksenmaterialer
    By: 
    150057-ebscobog:on1244844051|260|a
    Available: 
    150057-ebscobog:on1244844051|980|a
  3. Patient safety culture : theory, methods, and application

    • Ebog

    Patient safety culture : theory, methods, and application

    2014
    Subject: Patient safety culture -- setting the scene / Patrick Waterson -- Organisational safety principles / Frank Guldenmund -- Patient safety culture and organisational behaviour: integrating error, leadership and the work environment / Zenobia Talati and Mark Griffin -- Safety culture dimensions, patient safety outcomes and their correlations / Kenji Itoh, Henning Boje and Kim Lyngby Mikkelsen -- Looking behind patient safety culture: organisational dynamics, job characteristics and the work domain / Denham L. Phipps and Darren M. Ashcroft -- Creating a safety culture: learning from theory and practice / Ruth McDonald and Justin Waring -- Improving safety culture in healthcare organisations / Jane Carthey -- Assessing psychometric scale properties of patient safety culture / Jeanette Jackson and Theresa Kline -- Patient safety indicators as tools for proactive safety management and safety culture improvement / Teemu Reiman and Elina Pietikäinen -- Safety culture in practice: assessment, evaluation, and feedback / Cakil Agnew and Rhona Flin -- Widespread use of the HSPSC in Europe / Antje Hammer and Tanja Manser -- Lessons learnt from the AHRQ survey on patient safety culture / Joann Speer Sorra and Jim Battles -- The safety attitudes questionnaire: recent findings and future areas of research / Jason Etchegaray and Eric Thomas -- Experiences from a nationwide safety culture measurement using the HSPSC within Belgium / Annemarie Vlayen, Ward Schrooten, Johan Hellings, Margareta Haelterman and Hilde Peleman -- Patient safety culture in practice -- experiences and lessons learned by University Hospital Zurich / Francesca Giuliani, Mirjam Meier, Maria Helena Kiss and Amanda Van Vegten -- Leadership behaviour and safety culture in the UK NHS: a manager's perspective / Peter Bohan -- A view from elsewhere: safety culture in European air traffic management / Barry Kirwan and Steve Shorrock -- The prospects of patient safety culture / Patrick Waterson
    Find den her
    Detaljer
    Haves: 
    150057-ebscobog:ocn890703784|980|.
    Bidrag af: 
    Patrick Waterson
    Note: 
    Print version: Waterson, Patrick ; Patient safety culture, Patient safety culture -- setting the scene / Patrick Waterson -- Organisational safety principles / Frank Guldenmund -- Patient safety culture and organisational behaviour: integrating error, leadership and the work environment / Zenobia Talati and Mark Griffin -- Safety culture dimensions, patient safety outcomes and their correlations / Kenji Itoh, Henning Boje and Kim Lyngby Mikkelsen -- Looking behind patient safety culture: organisational dynamics, job characteristics and the work domain / Denham L. Phipps and Darren M. Ashcroft -- Creating a safety culture: learning from theory and practice / Ruth McDonald and Justin Waring -- Improving safety culture in healthcare organisations / Jane Carthey -- Assessing psychometric scale properties of patient safety culture / Jeanette Jackson and Theresa Kline -- Patient safety indicators as tools for proactive safety management and safety culture improvement / Teemu Reiman and Elina Pietikäinen -- Safety culture in practice: assessment, evaluation, and feedback / Cakil Agnew and Rhona Flin -- Widespread use of the HSPSC in Europe / Antje Hammer and Tanja Manser -- Lessons learnt from the AHRQ survey on patient safety culture / Joann Speer Sorra and Jim Battles -- The safety attitudes questionnaire: recent findings and future areas of research / Jason Etchegaray and Eric Thomas -- Experiences from a nationwide safety culture measurement using the HSPSC within Belgium / Annemarie Vlayen, Ward Schrooten, Johan Hellings, Margareta Haelterman and Hilde Peleman -- Patient safety culture in practice -- experiences and lessons learned by University Hospital Zurich / Francesca Giuliani, Mirjam Meier, Maria Helena Kiss and Amanda Van Vegten -- Leadership behaviour and safety culture in the UK NHS: a manager's perspective / Peter Bohan -- A view from elsewhere: safety culture in European air traffic management / Barry Kirwan and Steve Shorrock -- The prospects of patient safety culture / Patrick Waterson
    ISBN nr.: 
    9781409448150, 9781317083207, 9781315599717, 1409448150, 1317083202, 1315599716
    Udgiver: 
    Ashgate
    Målgruppe: 
    voksenmaterialer
    By: 
    150057-ebscobog:ocn890703784|260|a
    Available: 
    150057-ebscobog:ocn890703784|980|a
  4. Special education past. Landrum, Present and future : perspectives from the field

    • Ebog

    Special education past. Landrum, Present and future : perspectives from the field

    2014
    Summary: Teachers report being unprepared for the difficult behavior they encounter in classrooms, and administrators find themselves under increasing pressure to maintain safe and orderly schools. IDEA regulations have also resulted in ongoing confusion about how schools can and should discipline students with identified disabilities
    Find den her
    Detaljer
    Haves: 
    150057-ebscobog:ocn890207959|980|.
    Bidrag af: 
    Timothy Landrum, Bryan G. Cook, Melody Tankersley
    Note: 
    Print version: Cook, Bryan G. ; Special education past, present, and future : Perspectives from the field, FRONT COVER; SPECIAL EDUCATION PAST, PRESENT, AND FUTURE: PERSPECTIVES FROM THE FIELD; COPYRIGHT PAGE; CONTENTS; LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS; CHAPTER 1 SPECIAL EDUCATION PAST, PRESENT, AND FUTURE: FOUNDATIONAL CONCEPTS AND INTRODUCTION TO THE VOLUME; References; CHAPTER 2 IDEA AND LEARNING DISABILITIES: PERSPECTIVES, PROBLEMS, AND PROPOSALS; Perspective; Learning Disabilities in the Fifties and Sixties; Pedagogical Prevention of LD; Problems with IDEA; Problems with IDEA's Child Find; Problems with IDEA Evaluations; Problems with IDEA Eligibility; Discrepancy Issues in LD; Achievement Issue, Problems with IDEA Programs (IEPs)Who Does Rowley Charge with Resolving Issues of Methodology?; Methodology Disputes and ASDs; Methodology and the 1997 and 2004 IDEA Amendments and Regulations; Courts' and Hearing Officers' Views on Methodology; Districts' Views on Methodology/Program; Standards-Based IEPs; Problems with Placements; Proposals: Would IDEA Work Better if ...?; Evaluation; Eligibility; Program and Placement; Procedural Protections; Dispute Resolution; The Future of IDEA, LD, and Special Education; Notes; References, CHAPTER 3 REFLECTIONS ON THE CONCEPT OF THE LEAST RESTRICTIVE ENVIRONMENT IN SPECIAL EDUCATIONOrigins and Interpretations of LRE in Special Education; Origins of the Term; LRE as a Legal Principle; LRE as a Rebuttable Presumption; Trends in Judicial Decisions; Applying the Concept of LRE; Educational Strategies to Implement the LRE Principle; Educating Elementary Students; Educating Secondary Students; The Future of the LRE Principle; Presumptive Inclusion; Parental School Choice; References; CHAPTER 4 PAST, PRESENT, AND FUTURE IN EBD AND SPECIAL EDUCATION, Brief Notes on the History of Special Education and EBDHistories and Their Revision; A Needed Refocus; Where We Are and How We got There; The Distraction of Labels; The Distraction of Proportionality; The Distraction of Inclusion; Toward a More Desirable Future; Instruction; Research; Policy; Sustained Success; Conceptual Issues and Language; Summary and Conclusion; References; CHAPTER 5 STUDENTS WITH LEARNING AND BEHAVIORAL DISABILITIES AND THE SCHOOL-TO-PRISON PIPELINE: HOW WE GOT HERE, AND WHAT WE MIGHT DO ABOUT IT; The Pipeline; The Cost and Outcomes of Juvenile Incarceration, Characteristics and Needs of Youth in the PipelineIncarcerated Youth; Conditions of Confinement; Pipeline Entry; Racial Disparities in Discipline; Discipline and Disability; Zero Tolerance; Academic-Behavior Connection; School Climate; Efforts to Reform: The Promise of a Multi-Tiered System of Support; Preventing Entry; Preventing Recidivism; A Proposed Research Agenda; Conclusion: What Might Be Done to End the Pipeline?; Notes; References; CHAPTER 6 TEACHING STUDENTS WITH EMOTIONAL DISABILITIES: CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES
    ISBN nr.: 
    9781783508365, 1783508361
    Udgiver: 
    Emerald Publishing
    Målgruppe: 
    voksenmaterialer
    By: 
    150057-ebscobog:ocn890207959|260|a
    Available: 
    150057-ebscobog:ocn890207959|980|a
  5. Good governance and civil society : selected issues on the relations between state, economy and society

    • Ebog

    Good governance and civil society : selected issues on the relations between state, economy and society

    2014
    Summary: The concept of "governance" is a key issue for public sector work at all levels. In today's environment of globalization and the growing significance of communication and participatory managing methods, public service provisions and dialogue with citizens have to be developed. Governance provides an answer to these challenges: it combines cooperative forms of governing, involving both the private sector and social partners, which can form networks to develop policies in different fields. "Good" governance is generally seen as an outcome of transparent and efficient governing methods, as well as multi-level governance utilizing both state instruments and other institutions, such as supranational organisations and local and regional governments. This book is devoted to these questions and research problems. The contributors are predominantly young scientists, and examine a wide range of different examples, issues and case studies, in order to analyse various elements and aspects of the concept of "governance". The book provides interdisciplinary and multidimensional research in order to analyse the numerous different facets of this broad term. As such, the contributors to this volume are drawn from the various fields of politics, the economy, society, and communication, in order to provide a well-rounded and in-depth analysis of "governance"--Provided by publisher
    Serie: 
    Find den her
    Detaljer
    Haves: 
    150057-ebscobog:ocn905862069|980|.
    Bidrag af: 
    Adam Jarosz
    Note: 
    Print version: Good governance and civil society, Initial remarks: Good governance and civil society: Definitions and the political dimension / Ralph Schattkowsky -- Part 1: Internationalization of governance and society -- The significance of good governance for sustainable development: A theoretical approach / Roberta Kareivaite -- The governance of power in the last-Westphalian international environment / Adrian Szumowski -- Democracy and its deficit in the European Union / Magdalena Zawalska -- Effectiveness of the political system and government effectiveness (selected issues) / Marcin Lukaszewski -- State as a party to international commercial arbitration / Nerika Lizinska -- Part 2: Communication and self-organisation as elements of regulation of power and society -- The conception of the free marketplace of ideas and freedom of political speech in German: An historical introduction / Wieslaw Waclawczyk -- Public speaking: The source in researching political though / Tomasz Wicha -- On some aspects of media communique / Hanna-Lore Bobakova and Janusz Karpeta -- The subjective model of the civil society in terms of Pope John Paul II / Ilona Balcerczyk -- Help is their business: International service clubs in Germany / Anna Rydel -- The Polish "subtitles scene" in the context of postmodern civil society / Kamil Luczaj and Magdalena Holy-Luczaj -- Part 3: Quality of regional and local identity as a democratic pattern of efficacy of civil society -- The governance model in the post-socialist city: necessity or natural development? / Adam Jarosz -- Public-private partnership and corporate public sector organisation: functional decentralization and alternative ways to increase social performance in Romania / Simona Mina and Felicia Surugiu -- Administrative supervision of local self-government in the context of good governance: The case of Lithuania / Violeta Kiuriene -- The role of non-governmental organisations within housing policy formation and implementation: Theoretical approaches and main concepts / Dilorom Akhmedzhanova -- The anti-civic ethos of the creative class / Alicja Palecka -- Implementation of the principles of civil society and public governance in the cases of Caucasian countries / Kacper Nowak -- Part 4: Economy as regulator of socio-political relations in modern societies -- Interest groups and their influence on the Czechoslovakian Author's Rights Act / Hana Berankova -- Good governance in the development of the absorptive capacity: Can it promote a national innovation system? / Vita Jukneviciene -- Civil society and economic outcomes in the transformation of Poland: Pushback-One company's struggle to survive Poland's mass privatization program; A case study / Chris O'Neill -- Changes in the corporate organisation as a response to globalization (with the application of transaction cost economics) / Oskar Braszczynski -- How Wall Street changed Main Street: Unnoticed agency problems that lead to financial crises / Mateusz Trawinski -- Social enterprises as civil society organisations: A Polish perspective / Marta Cisek
    ISBN nr.: 
    9781443873543, 1443873543
    Udgiver: 
    Cambridge Scholars Publishing
    Målgruppe: 
    voksenmaterialer
    By: 
    150057-ebscobog:ocn905862069|260|a
    Available: 
    150057-ebscobog:ocn905862069|980|a
  6. Foundations of public administration : an essay in tis paradigms

    • Ebog

    Foundations of public administration : an essay in tis paradigms

    2014
    Summary: In the course of the last century, fundamental changes occurred in the relationship between public administration and politics. This book describes in which ways and to what extent the public administration discipline aims to shape this fundamental relation by analyzing the paradigmatic foundations of the discipline. The various paradigms adopted by different groups in the public administration discipline at different points in time determine for a large part the nature of problems to be tackled and the solution procedures that may be considered. Therefore, as discussed in the book, a clear in.
    Find den her
    Detaljer
    Haves: 
    150057-ebscobog:ocn881457933|980|.
    Note: 
    Print version: Snellen, I. Th. M. (Ignatius Theodorus Maria), 1933- ; Foundations of public administration, Cover; Title Page; Contents; Introduction; Prologue; 1 Paradigms in Public Administration; 1.1 The Meaning of 'Public Administration'; 1.2 Public Administration as a Borrowing Discipline; 1.3 Paradigms as Conceptual Lenses; 1.4 The Late Development of Public Administration Paradigms; 1.5 The Politics-Administration Relation as a Practical and Theoretical Problem; 2 Public Administrationas a Submissive Instrument of Politics; 2.1 Wilson's Introduction of a 'Foreign Science'; 2.2 Max Weber's Elaborations on the Paradigm; 3 Public Administration as an 'Outsourceable'Policy Production System, 3.1 Policies and Administration from a Systems Perspective3.2 Systems Approach and the Make-ability of Society(the 1960s); 3.3 Paradigmatic Problems and Solutions: a Case Study; 3.4 Public Sector Management Systems and Ethics; 4 Demand and Supply Paradigm of Public Administration; 4.1 Public Choice Theory: An Optimistic and a Pessimistic Scenario; 4.2 Solutions to the Problems as Viewed Through the Paradigmatic Lens; 4.3 'Re-inventing Government' and Other Practical Proposals; 4.4 Exogenous and Endogenous Criticism of the Demand and Supply Paradigm, 5 The Modernist Paradigm: Public Administration as Scientification ofPolitics5.1 Rational Science and Irrational Politics; 5.2 Policy Theory as the Core of Policy Sciences and Policy Analysis; 5.3 Problems and Solutions Suggested by the Modernistic Paradigm; 5.4 The Infinite Quest for (Scientific) Rationality; 6 Public Administration ina Multirational Perspective: a Post-Modern Paradigm; 6.1 A Four-Rationality Model of Public Administration and Politics; 6.2 The Rivalry Between the Four Rationalities; 6.3 Distinguishing Properties of the Post-modernistic Paradigm; 6.4 Some Tentative Solutions
    ISBN nr.: 
    9789460949432, 9460949436
    Udgiver: 
    Eleven International Publishing
    Målgruppe: 
    voksenmaterialer
    By: 
    150057-ebscobog:ocn881457933|260|a
    Available: 
    150057-ebscobog:ocn881457933|980|a
  7. Public value management, measurement and reporting

    • Ebog

    Public value management, measurement and reporting

    2014
    First edition
    Summary: This volume aims to shed light on how public service value is identified, managed, measured and reported. The concept of public value has been increasingly associated with the process of modernisation and in recent years the debate has shifted away from 'what' to 'how' public value is conceptualised and practiced. How the public sector can meet the communities' expectations is particularly relevant in light of the Global Financial Crisis. At present, many governments are involved in reform aimed at improving the effectiveness, efficiency and economy of operations, and improving the quality of public services. Examining the effectiveness of these reforms and understanding the gap between the expectations of society and the resources available for public services is an important but under-explored topic. The chapters are the result of a series of conferences and workshops on public value held in 2012 and 2013. There are 20 papers, covering a range of topics, including theoretical reflections, practical case studies and empirical observations aimed at understanding the concept of public value
    Find den her
    Detaljer
    Haves: 
    150057-ebscobog:ocn896824648|980|.
    Bidrag af: 
    James Guthrie (1952-), Giuseppe Marcon (1946-), Salvatore Russo, Federica Farneti
    Note: 
    Print version: Public value management, Public value management : challenge of defining, measuring and reporting for public services / James Guthrie, Salvatore Russo -- Beyond new public management : does performance measurement drive public value in networks? / Suresh Cuganesan, Kerry Jacobs, David Lacey -- Performance measurement of local public service networks / Steve Martin, James Downe -- Developing strategy to create a public value chain / John Dumay -- Public value as performance : Politicians' and managers' perspectives on the importance of budgetary, accruals and non-financial information / Mariannunziata Liguori, Mariafrancesca Sicilia, Ileana Steccolini -- The quest for public value in the Swedish museum transition / Kerstin Thomson, Mikael Holmgren Caicedo, Maria Mårtensson -- Performance management systems and public value strategy : a case study / Enrico Bracci, Enrico Deidda Gagliardo, Michele Bigoni -- Strategic practices of creating public value : how managers of housing associations create public value / Kim van Eijck, Berit Lindemann -- Conceptual framework and empirical evidence of public value : the case of the Italian higher education sector / Guido Modugno, Giulia Ventin, Giulio Curiel -- Politics and public services : looking beyond economic rationality and public value / Patrizio Monfardini, Pasquale Ruggiero -- Harmony in hierarchy? How politicians and public managers prioritize crucial public values / Zeger Van der Wal -- Co-governing public value in local authorities / Francesco Badia, Elena Borin, Fabio Donato -- Public (dis)value : a case study / Paolo Esposito, Paolo Ricci -- Measuring public value in bureaucratic settings : opportunities and constraints / Enrico Guarini -- Public value theory in the context of public sector modernization / Giuseppe Marcon -- How do we measure public value? From theory to practice / Alessandro Spano -- Sustainable public value inscriptions : a critical approach / Federica Farneti, John Dumay
    ISBN nr.: 
    9781784410100, 1784410101
    Udgiver: 
    Emerald Group Publishing Limited
    Målgruppe: 
    voksenmaterialer
    By: 
    150057-ebscobog:ocn896824648|260|a
    Available: 
    150057-ebscobog:ocn896824648|980|a
  8. Challenging times, challenging administration : the role of public administration in producing social justice in Ireland

    • Ebog

    Challenging times, challenging administration : the role of public administration in producing social justice in Ireland

    2014
    Chris McInerny explores the relationship between public administration and social justice in Ireland. He argues that public administration, at a variety of levels, is challenged to consider its unique and potentially far-reaching role in designing and delivering social justice outcomes. Locating this discussion within recent social and economic events in Ireland, he draws on a variety of historical and contemporary sources to stimulate reflection on social justice and its relationship with public administration and public policy
    Find den her
    Detaljer
    Haves: 
    150057-ebscobog:ocn900208003|980|.
    Note: 
    Print version, Cover; Challenging times, challenging administration; Contents; List of figures and tables; Acknowledgements; Introduction; 1 Contemporary challenges for public administration; 2 The role of public administration in promoting and protecting social justice; 3 Exploring the meaning of social justice; 4 Civic engagement and social justice; 5 The evolution of public administration in Ireland; 6 Assessing the state of social justice in Irish public administration; 7 Social justice and public administration in practice; 8 Towards a social justice agenda in public administration; References; Index
    ISBN nr.: 
    9781781707418, 9781781706886, 9781526103314, 1781707413, 1781706883, 1526103311
    Udgiver: 
    Manchester University Press
    Rettigheder: 
    Legal Deposit; Only available on premises controlled by the deposit library and to one user at any one time; The Legal Deposit Libraries (Non-Print Works) Regulations (UK), Restricted: Printing from this resource is governed by The Legal Deposit Libraries (Non-Print Works) Regulations (UK) and UK copyright law currently in force
    Målgruppe: 
    voksenmaterialer
    By: 
    150057-ebscobog:ocn900208003|260|a
    Available: 
    150057-ebscobog:ocn900208003|980|a
  9. Technologies of Government : Politics and Power in the "Information Age"

    • Ebog
    Find den her
    Detaljer
    Haves: 
    150057-ebscobog:ocn894511721|980|.
    Note: 
    Cover; Series; Technologies of Government; Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data; Contents; Foreword; Preface; Chapter 1: Govern-Mentalities; Chapter 2: Info-Notions; Chapter 3: Statistics; Chapter 4: Database; Chapter 5: Economy; Chapter 6: Accountability; References; About the Author
    ISBN nr.: 
    9781623967949, 1623967945
    Udgiver: 
    Information Age Publishing
    Målgruppe: 
    voksenmaterialer
    By: 
    150057-ebscobog:ocn894511721|260|a
    Available: 
    150057-ebscobog:ocn894511721|980|a
  10. FMK i praksis

    • Tidsskriftsartikel

    FMK i praksis

    I: Månedsskrift for almen praksis, Årg. 92, nr. 9 (2014), S. 712-720
    Find den her
    Detaljer
    Haves: 
    870971-tsart:36247924|980|.
    Omfang: 
    S. 712-720
    Målgruppe: 
    gymnasieniveau, fagligt niveau, alment niveau, voksenmaterialer
    Findes i: 
    Månedsskrift for almen praksis, Årg. 92, nr. 9 (2014)
    By: 
    870971-tsart:36247924|260|a
    Available: 
    870971-tsart:36247924|980|a