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  1. Organized crime and instability in Central Africa : a threat assessment

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    Organized crime and instability in Central Africa : a threat assessment

    Summary: Conflict in Central Africa appears to have declined remarkably in recent years. The remaining instability and violence, which predominantly affect the Eastern DRC, seem to be increasingly the result of criminal acts in a context of persistent lawlessness and weak state institutions, rather than the product of war. This context makes it difficult to provide the criminal justice response that crimes such as murder, rape and trafficking in children require. Although political grievances remain, much of the current instability and lawlessness is tied to activities such as trafficking in minerals and other forms of contraband. Those profiting include members of illegal armed groups and corrupt elements in the military, who have an economic interest in maintaining the current situation. Militant organizations may have had political origins, but today, many could be better described as criminal groups. The largest source of finance for these groups is the minerals trade. Unless the flows of contraband are addressed, incentives for armed groups to perpetuate instability, lawlessness and violence will persist and it will be extremely difficult to build state capacity in this region. The current approach to tackling the instability in the Eastern DRC has focused heavily on the military. Fighting insurgencies requires soldiers, but fighting crime requires a functional and accessible criminal justice system. Building law enforcement capacity in the region requires capacity-building and reform in the police, courts and prisons. In parallel to this long-term effort, immediate responses are needed to undercut the financing of armed groups. There are a number of efforts from governments and international organizations to regulate the mineral supply chain. The idea is to promote transparency and provide certification that the minerals are not funding armed groups. All of these initiatives require a mechanism to ensure the integrity of shipments from mine sites to the point of export. Toward this end, a quick impact project aimed at curtailing trafficking and building the capacity of the local police could build positive momentum in the Eastern DRC. The transport of bulky minerals requires the use of roads, and there are a limited number of useable roads in the Eastern DRC. International police presently stationed in the region could partner with the Congolese Mining Police to ensure the security of the relatively small land area required for transporting this commodity. Countries covered by this report include Africa's Great Lakes region -- Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Burundi, Rwanda, Zambia, Malawi and Mozambique -- as well as other sub-Saharan states including Cameroon, Gabon, Congo, Central African Republic, South Sudan, Angola, Namibia, Equatorial Guinea, Sao Tome and Principe, Seychelles, Comoros, and Mauritius, among others
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    Bidrag af: 
    United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime
    Financial support for this study was provided by the Governments of Sweden (through the UNODC Integrated Programme and Oversight Branch) and Canada, Print version: Organized crime and instability in Central Africa, Preface. -- Main findings and recommendations. -- Executive summary. -- Introduction. -- Conflict and crime. -- Drug flows. -- Mineral resource flows. -- Environmental resource flows. -- Product flows. -- Organized crime as a source of conflict finance and instability. -- Implications for policy, October 2011
    ISBN nr.: 
    9789211303087, 9789210552615, 9211303087, 921055261X
    United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime